Issue with Docker Build Pipeline after Docker 23 Release

The first issue we ran into when Docker 23 released was outlined pretty well here (Gitlab Runner - spinning up EC2 instances with docker machine fails with certificate issue - #10 by jwithecombe), and we were able to follow the workaround and fix docker-machine. However, even after addressing that our docker build was still failing with nothing except an exit code 1. Here is the raw log from our pipeline:

#17 preparing layers for inline cache
#17 sha256:26e038ff61dba30d19149135e12ba7f06f706cd60f8636bca0beca6919df93cb
e[0Ke[0Ke[36;1mCleaning up project directory and file based variablese[0;me[0;m
e[0Ke[31;1mERROR: Job failed: exit code 1

For now we’ve locked the docker version for docker-machine to 20.10.21 until we can figure out what’s happening. Is anyone else running into similar issue after Docker 23 release?