Registry login does not work with token or $CI_REGISTRY_USER and $CI_REGISTRY_PASSWORD, but with regular user

I have a local installation of GitLab-CE 16.3 via Docker. After importing some projects from another GitLab instance (older version) some pipelines don’t work any more. The login to the Docker registry via


does not work any more. The error message is:

Error response from daemon: Get "": unauthorized: authentication required

I then tried to login from the machine where the Gitlab Docker container are running. Any attempt to login via token does not work. However, I can successfully login with my personal user credentials.

I have seen the hint on Authenticate with the Container Registry | GitLab that I have to disable external authorization to use tokens. It is disabled. I have no idea, why I can´t login with any other credentials than my personal ones.

Do you have an idea?