A lot of good questions here. I’ll answer one at a time. Let me know if I missed any.
There are no limitations specific to GitLab pages, which might explain why information on this seems scarce. The only limitations that might apply are with regard to repository size and runner minutes, which are applicable in many situations unrelated to GitLab pages. If you feel the documentation could be made clearer, I encourage you to create an issue or merge request to get the Documentation team involved.
Is the size limit for published sites the same as the limit on repositories(10GB)?
Yes, same limit.
Will a site published from a private repository still be available to the public?
Yes, the repository can be public, private, or internal - the pages site will still be available.
What is the maximum bandwidth my pages site can pull? (My site is just a portfolio so probably do not need to worry, just curious)
We don’t have a set maximum bandwidth for pages sites. If this should become an issue for any reason, you’ll be notified.
Maximum builds per hour?
There is not a set number of maximum builds per hour. The only restriction with regard to pages builds is pipeline minutes if using our runners.
Is there any other limits to pages sites?
The only limitations are < 10GB repository size and available pipeline minutes. Pipeline minutes are the execution time for your pipelines on our shared runners. You can use your own runner to build these jobs without using CI minutes. You can also purchase additional CI minutes for use with our shared runners so your pipelines will not be blocked after you have used all your CI minutes from your main quota.
How many pages can a free user make?
There is no limit to how many pages a free user can make. The only limitations are outlined above.